Align Your Prompts: Test-Time Prompting with Distribution Alignment for Zero-Shot Generalization


The promising zero-shot generalization of vision-language models such as CLIP has led to their adoption using prompt learning for numerous downstream tasks. Previous works have shown test time prompt tuning using entropy minimization to adapt text prompts for unseen domains. While effective, this overlooks the key cause for performance degradation to unseen domains – distribution shift. In this work, we explicitly handle this problem by aligning the out-of-distribution (OOD) test sample statistics to those of the source data using prompt tuning. We use a single test sample to adapt multi modal prompts at test time by minimizing the feature distribution shift to bridge the gap in the test domain. Evaluating against the domain generalization benchmark, our method improves zero-shot top1 accuracy beyond existing prompt-learning techniques, with a 3.08% improvement over the baseline MaPLe. In cross-dataset generalization with unseen categories across 10 datasets, our method improves consistently across all datasets compared to the existing state of the art. Our source code and models are available at

In * Neural Information Processing Systems, NeurIPS 2023*
Muzammal Naseer
Muzammal Naseer

My research interests include adversarial attacks and defenses, Attention based Modeling and Out of distribution Generalization.